No, the penetrating capability comes from the electromagnetic waves, also used in radio or mobile phones.
Thermal and other visual technologies have no penetration capability, though they may give the impression sometimes when a movement or temperature difference propagates through a (thin) material. Such as, a thermal camera may catch a temperature difference in wall temperature from a heater on the other side of the wall or a laser may catch the small movements on a wall or window surface from speech on the other side.
The necessary motion to cause an alert depends on several parameters
- the distance to the object
- the material to penetrate
- the size and material of the moving object
- the radar system
E.g for the CPR4
- at 1 meter distance and a 10 cm brick wall, a millimeter movement will be enough
- at 5 meters and thicker wall, 10 mm may be needed
Robust, rugged, ruggedized are terms about a device’s endurance and stability. The terms are pretty much interchangeable, though there are small differences such as a rugged device is designed to be rugged (as Cinside devices) compared to a ruggadised device that has added components to be robust such as a standard smartphone in a protective shell.
A rugged device is one that keeps operating under conditions other than those in the office. The conditions may be extreme or just outdoor. It is the user who define how extreme his working conditions are. The device must cope with the conditions, and not just at one occasion but for life which can easily be 5-10 years for a Cinside device.
A purchaser of a mobile device will carefully evaluate what kind of working conditions the unit will be exposed to. It is probably a good idea to select a unit which is a little more rugged than you actually need. It is far better to be too rugged than not rugged enough, and you may at some point encounter conditions more severe than you originally predicted.
How is rugged defined?
The temperature spec defines the operational temperature range of the unit. Also a temperature range for storage may be specified.
MIL-STD-810G is a standard issued by the United States Army’s Developmental Test Command. The standard is comprised of about 24 laboratory test methods cover a wide range of environments.
Cinside products are designed to fulfill a selection of the MIL-STD specs, especially focusing on the vibration and drop tests as we find occurring in the daily operations.
IP stands for Ingress Protection, and an IP rating is used to specify the level of environmental protection of electrical equipment against solids and liquids. It is defined by international standard IEC 60529.
Cinside product are designed to fulfill IP67 which means dust-proof and able to be immersed in water on 0.15 m depth for 30 minutes.
Practical examples of the CPR4 device ruggedness are illustrated in the videos below.
The first video demonstrates the robustness of the CPR4 withstanding multiple drops. The CPR4 is operating during the test with all sensors active and transferring data wireless to the smartphone and our CiMonA app. The measured “vibrations” are shown in yellow in the app to the right in the video.
The following video show the resistance to water and the ability to float.
First, we have to define what to detect, small or larger movement
We deal with two situations,
- small 1-10 mm stationary movements
- person moving around
The range depends on the damping through the path between the sensor and the object. The damping depends on the material and its thickness.
A rule of thumb is that Cinside 10 GHz handheld sensors can detect stationary movement in a 70 degrees sector
- 1-3 meters behind a 20 cm reinforced concrete wall
- 3-10 meters behind an interior wall
- 20 meters without obstacles
With the 2 GHz systems we can achieve more penetration to the cost of small movement sensitivity.
All types of building materials have different properties, and they all effect the signal in different ways. In general, a dense and thick wall damps the signal more, and the range decreases.
A homogeneous metal plate, eg a white board or metal roof is impossible to penetrate with the energies we are using. Metal reinforcements in concrete walls degrade performance, but as long there are gaps in between bars it is possible.
We are building our FAQ database so please contribute with your question and it may turn up here with an elaborated answer.